Its application is open to abuse many variations: for gaming, design, social interaction in social media, or as weapon in cyberwar. In the philosophy of technology, Ihde often refers to this concept. In his very few Wittgenstein references, he mentions Thomas Kuhn and the duck-rabbit picture gestalt shifts , which looks like a duck and a rabbit at the same time Ihde : 14—16; Ihde : Apparently different meanings gestalts are possible, and technology makes possible different meanings.
Key to Life
This insight brings us back to Wittgensteins claim about grammar. The innate grammar of ordinary language is specialized to practically handle manifold contingent circumstances. Whereas scientific language enfolds its meaning in very peculiar scientific situations, everyday life language is embedded in multiple possibilities of genuine human actions Kambartel : — Linguistic actions shape practical forms of human life, and our use of language is made possible by a form of life.
There is a transcendental grammar that makes possible and shapes concrete uses of language. Now we add that technology, and not only language, can be part of such a transcendental grammar.
The Building Blocks of Meaning: Ideas for a philosophical grammar | Michele Prandi
Moreover, grammar must also be understood in a process way. What immediately impresses itself upon us about the use of a word is the way it is used in the sentence structure, the part of its use—one might say—that can be taken in by the ear. This finds expression in the question of the essence of language, of propositions, of thought. For it sees the essence of things not as something that already lies open to view, and that becomes surveyable through a process of ordering, but as something that lies beneath the surface.
Something that lies within, which we perceive when we see right into the thing, and which an analysis is supposed to unearth. There is a body grammar as well as a grammar of colors or of technological artifacts. Technology, understood as tool use and as technique, is also a condition of possibility, also constitutes a depth grammar. Tool use understood as involving innate technique is a bodily sensory grammar of successful, meaningful and socially shared practice and performance.
This implies that on a grammatical level, skill, understanding and knowledge belong together. It is only possible since there is this grammar we know, but when asked about it we cannot fully make explicit. We knowhow, we have solutions. As individuals, we do not describe or prescribe, we do not create meaning; the grammar describes and prescribes our uses-performances, and the giving meaning and the making of meaning is always already embedded in a know-how and meaning that is given. Grammar does not tell us how language must be constructed in order to fulfil its purpose, in order to have such-and-such an effect on human beings.
It only describes, and in no way explains, the use of signs. Philosophy must not interfere in any way with the actual use of language, so it can in the end only describe it. For it cannot justify it either. It leaves everything as it is.
Ideas for a philosophical grammar
If someone were to advance theses in philosophy, it would never be possible to debate them, because everyone would agree to them. In philosophy no inferences are drawn. Philosophy only states what everyone concedes to it. Whatever their shortcomings, however, the philosophies of Marx and Wittgenstein share a fruitful insight: the observation that social activity is an ongoing process of world-making.
Winner Ihde : Wittgenstein points to a vast multiplicity of cultural practices that comprise our common world. It makes sense to ask, for example, how the adoption of digital computers might alter the way people think of their own faculties and activities. If Wittgenstein is correct, we would expect that changes of this kind would appear, sooner or later, in the language people use to talk about themselves. But in voiced word music and logic are incarnate. And this diversity is not something fixed, given once for all; but new types of language, new language-games, as we may say, come into existence, and others become obsolete and get forgotten.
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An intention is embedded in a setting, in human customs and institutions. If the technique of the game of chess did not exist, I could not intend to play a game of chess. We used Wittgensteinian terms such as games and form of life, but we also introduced new terms such as innate technique and transcendental technology and performance to reflect on how technologies are more than artefacts or functions.
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As technologies are used, as we perform with technologies, as we learn skills and technique in the process of using technologies, technologies are shaped and made possible by larger grammars, by a form of life, and are in turn also constitutive of this transcendental conditions and transcendental whole, understood as process and performance. This means that technology, as tool and technique, is always more than a mere instrument.
Deeply linked to our shared meanings and shared performances, it shapes our activities, our thinking, and our existence, and cannot be isolated from our form of life. Neither can we isolate it from use of language and from logic—if a distinction is meaningful at all. Language and technology are strongly entangled: in use and technique, and in their role as transcendental conditions.
With our example of talking robots, we have also suggested that this approach can inform an ethics and politics of technology, but more research is needed to develop this point. Further work is also needed to elaborate a Wittgensteinian epistemology of technology. Research that further develops and applies the interpretations and arguments in this essay may include topics such as time, finitude and technology, technology and games, technology skills and implicit knowledge, technology and language, artistic performance, epistemology of music, ethics of technologies, relations between ethical, philosophical and technological grammar, relations between Wittgenstein and other philosophers Heidegger, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Plessner, etc.
We can try to understand our modern form of life and we can study the link between a specific technology-in-use and larger technological-cultural wholes. As these examples suggest, our interpretations and arguments are not only relevant to philosophy of technology; the topic of Wittgenstein and technology deserves wider attention in the philosophical community. In the course of our paper, we have engaged with Wittgenstein and with important epistemological questions concerning knowledge and doubt, and we have highlighted how Wittgenstein and our interpretations of Wittgenstein stand in the philosophical tradition.
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In these and other ways, the question of technology as use and technique and its relation to language turns out to be a fundamental philosophical question that is not only owned by a specialized subdiscipline, but that is central to philosophy as such. There is a diverse and multifaceted discussion about Wittgenstein in more empirical contexts of sociology and STS studies. Our paper follows a primary philosophical interest.
But at this point we also want to acknowledge that our claims regarding technologies and forms of life, social aspects of knowledge, tool use and tacit knowledge are compatible to several other approaches in the social sciences that use Wittgenstein to understand scientific practices and knowledge production.
And for instance Collins has done work on how tacit knowledge plays a role in science see also the special issue by Soler and Zwart Michael Lynch has also used and discussed Wittgenstein in his work, for instance the use of rules in Scientific Practice and Ordinary Action ; see also Due to reasons of space we cannot go into the details at this point.
But it could be a fruitful future work to combine our philosophical claims about Wittgenstein and technologies with those more empirically oriented works. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Open Access. First Online: 12 January At the same time, in Wittgenstein scholarship there has been little attention to technology. While it is often acknowledged that Wittgenstein was also working as engineer and architect, links between these biographical elements and his work remain undertheorized and are discussed in a way that does not render them interesting for philosophers of technology.
One example can be found immediately at the beginning of the Philosophical Investigations : A is building with building stones: there are blocks, pillars, slabs and beams. For Wittgenstein meaning is not tied to a particular word, but instead depends on use. We play a game.
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When we learn to use language, we learn these rules. But they are often not explicit. Learning a language, then, is like learning a skill and hence it also involves implicit knowledge see also the next part of the paper. But there are already rules and skills that are given, and there are others who have played the game before. When we speak, there is already a language, which has been used by others before us, and which is linked to a broader context.
Learning of particular games always has a social and cultural context, of which language games are part. The point is that meaning is tied to these social activities; it is not attached to a particular sign. There is a larger whole, a form of life—later in this paper these will be discussed as transcendental grammars. Yet indirectly, Wittgenstein also says something about technology. In the Investigations , he makes an interesting analogy between use of language and use of tools.
To make his central point about meaning being tied to language use, Wittgenstein compares the use of language to the use of devices and instruments. He even explicitly mentions tools: Think of the tools in a toolbox: there is a hammer, pliers, a saw, a screwdriver, a rule, a glue-pot, glue, nails and screws.
Related The Building Blocks Of Meaning: Ideas for a Philosophical Grammar
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