Snow wrote, "the political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party.
The CCP started to build its theoretical system of genocide at its early stage as a composite of its theories on class , revolution , struggle, violence , dictatorship , movements , and political parties. Discipline inspection organizations of the Party consist of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grassroots Party commissions for discipline inspection.
According to the People's Revolutionary Army PRA , the Discipline Inspection Commission is tasked with enforcing discipline and handling cases, foster the capability to assist the Party committees to improve the Party's style of work, organize and coordinate the fight against corruption, and do a better job of fighting against corruption and improving the Party's style of work in the army, so as to make new contributions to the army building in an all-round way.
The Long March
The local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grassroots Party commissions for discipline inspection work under the dual leadership of the Party committee at the same level and Party commission for discipline inspection at the next higher level. The term of each Party commission for discipline inspection is the same as that of the Party committee at the same level.
The plenary session of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection elects its standing committee, secretary and deputy secretaries and reports this to the Party Central Committee for approval. The plenary sessions of local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels elect the standing committee and secretary and deputy secretaries, and the results are passed by the Party committee at the same level and reported to the Party committee at the next higher level for approval. Whether a discipline inspection commission or discipline inspection members for a grassroots Party committee shall be established or put into position is to be decided by a Party organization at the next higher level in light of specific conditions.
A general Party branch committee and a Party branch committee shall include discipline inspection members. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection may, if needed, accredit a discipline inspection group or discipline inspectors to central Party and state organs. China's governance has become more focused on the leader under Xi, a style that "mimics Mao's in many respects", Liu said, adding that celebrating the Long March connects Xi to "the Communists' symbol of triumph".
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But much recent propaganda surrounding the march, he added, "departed from the truth". In reality the long retreat was a "military disaster" for the Communists, argues University of Hong Kong historian Xu Guoqi. Rather than Mao's brilliance, it was Japan's invasion of China that saved the party by diverting and weakening the Nationalists, he told AFP.
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Survivors have spoken of rapes, executions, kidnappings and forced requisitions of grain by the Red Army on the routes it walked. Two British men who spent more than a year following the Red Army's route calculated that it was about 6, kilometres -- far shorter than officially claimed. Others such as documentary filmmaker Sun Shuyun have interviewed survivors and witnesses who reported that celebrated incidents such as the Battle for Luding Bridge, where Red Army heroes reportedly made a perilous crossing under heavy gunfire, did not occur as described.
Such accounts have been blasted in state media.
Mao: the legend of the Long March - HistoryExtra
Those who cast doubt on the 12,kilometre figure are guilty of "historical nihilism", wrote Lu Yi, a scholar at the Central Party School, an institution where Communist Party officials are trained, in a commentary in the People's Liberation Army Daily newspaper last month. Lu singled out Sun and the British travellers as examples of people who "fly the flag of 'restoring the truth' to maliciously sever history and fabricate lies". The widely circulated commentary ended with a warning that "this historical nihilism must be firmly refuted".
Warren Sun of Monash University in Australia told AFP that while Xi understands the "less-than-savoury real story" of the march, in "issuing the new marching order, political necessity clearly overrides any historical truth".
Although Mao's own units reached Yanan in , China celebrates the reunification of Communist forces on October 22 the following year, and the 80th anniversary is being marked with museum exhibitions across the country. At the National Museum on Tiananmen Square, visitors gazed at oil paintings of Mao astride a white steed and displays of the Great Helmsman's handgun.
The Long March—the 8,mile trek by , Communist soldiers in while fleeing the Nationalists—is still legendary in Chinese Communist Party lore, but there are a lot of myths surrounding it, as the Chinese-born author discovers when she retraces the march's steps. Meeting wizened march veterans, the author, raised on the heroism of the march, is shocked to discover the reality: stories of starvation and desertion, violence against women and unnecessary deaths. For years afterward, some of the veterans didn't receive full pensions. A filmmaker and television producer who divides her time between London and Beijing, she also finds that Mao made strategic mistakes attributed to others, and used the march ruthlessly to defeat his rivals and cement his hold on Communist power.
Her interviews with veterans are among the book's highlights, but just as fascinating as the interviews and archival research is her travel through China.
Related The Long March: The True History of Communist Chinas Founding Myth
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